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'653 Eosl Main Slreel 
(716) 288- 5989 -Fo» 




Northern Ontario 

Its Progress and Development 

Under 'lie 





The Whitney Government has continued the enlightened and 
energetic policy that marked its advent to power in dealing 
with the settlement of lands in the newer parts of the Province 
and with the interests of the settlers. Its constant endeavor 
has been to make tiie position of the settler easier by relaxing 
regulations that bore hardly upon him and at times made him 
almost give up in despair. 

Wlwt Has B««a Doae. 

For example: It found th^it Free Grant settlers had to reside 
upon their lands for five years before they could get their 
patent". It changed t he law, and now the settler can obtain 
his patent in three years if he has his other duties performed. 

The WTiitney Government found, under the law as it existed, 
that the manes and minerals were reserved from the settler and 
he was obliged to take his land subject to the right of any ex- 
plorer to go upon it, and if he found minergls to stake out and 
work, and the settler got nothing except compensation for any 
damage that might be done to his property. This state of 
affairs caused much friction and soreness. The Whitney Gov- 
ernment changed the law, and no w when a settler takes rp 
land he gets all the mines and minerals on or under it. Not 
only so, but the law was made retroactive, and released to 
settlers who had already obtained their patents under the old 
law^ the mines and minerals on their property. 

The Whitney Government has dealt more liberally with the 
settlers in the matter of the pine timber. Under the amend- 
ment to the Free Grant Act of 1880, the Liberal Government 
reserved the pine timber on all Free Grant lands forever, with 
the right to the timber licensee to enter upon the lands, out the 
timber, make roads, leave the debris, etc., which was an unfair 
state of things. The Whitney Government endeavored to 
change that. Wherever it found vested interests had been 
created under the law it was not able to wipe them out, but it 

S-if h« • ! »»w "guUtion. he geU .11 the timber on the 
otll timbl'r'n h"" S*' ""'"' "^ ^* ""y "^'"- hi. right 
hlr^vLi ?r •" ""i^^"'^. ""'l ha. two acre, cleared. And 
been ... month, m readence, and ha. m acre, cleared. Thel. 
?ll^^?I?L!?^!y!LH!l^!^^ «ell hi. timber whiJTiS 
^nngup ! ^^Und^andjet^ec^^ therefrom when 
ne mo«t ne ed, it " — 

thiTlTn-"*"" ""V ""^ '"*'' '° ^''^ "'-^ ""led P«rt. in which 
!f«d T "»*"•*''"> «i«ted, which lot. are not inC Sd in . 
bmber l.oen.e, but owin^ to the re«,rv.tion in the patent ttl 

provided that where the quantity of pine timber on lot of thi. 

a^ph Lt Ti''''? '^i "^"^ "*«•»- *« 3ettlerc^n by 
Se«i of ^t in*^ fT''l'i ^^' ^•«"'*- "><» Mine., g^t I 

to 2^ .* '"" "*' l'«^*' «^«° ''here land, are under C 
to cut whatever pme he require, for buildinir puroo^ C «; 
.ny ^arg« and *^ j»ll the pine required t^uZ^il7j 

Ze^ o'nlv'tr^i- '' ^'^''^ •* *° *he lumbermen or m' 1 
ownei-8, only the ordinary duea— no bonu. 

JW^ei^tteWhito^rG^^ ^^ 

on them and the wttler owii. a^ ^^I^ ^^ 

In the Hainy River Free Grant District iTa wttler d«.i«Hl 
to purcha.e land in addition to hi. Free Grant he had tT p^ 

Trr! fl ?i.^ , ",°^.^'''*'' °"*^''* «h««Jd have to r - $i per 
acre for their land when wttler. in other part, onlv nai^K^T. 
It ha. reduced the price of lands in the Painy Biv^^D^cfte 
50c. per acre and ha. put. the rettlers i^tLtlll^. 
eqna% with the .tt Jin tht ^liZ^l.^'t^J^ 

• JL L T'°? "«^"° *he old Govemirent rZirS 

settler, tekmg up land to pay half the price in cash and rt» 
balance m two year.. The Whitney Gov'emmenM' "an^* 

th.t .nd now the wttler need only p»y o„e-quarter of the pric 
It the time of purchM. .„.| the bdan.e in three year. ^ 

hi. i^'f ^ ^""* ^'* ' •*"'" •'«»'«J not -ell or r«ign 
hu loc«hou. Frequontly cMe, of hardship arose in which 

.rAe "T/ h'; '^'\f''\ "*'-• - '- other ,uS 
TZ I r" *??"*^ "■* ''^' ""^ "<"' • »«t"er can ,ell or 

lurdahip "• ^^'' """°'** '*"'* *" oft*" • 

HeaetteMl Impeeten. 

^l^Li^llWhitn^y^v^^^ came in disputes between 
^.^n^erv^njna jettien were freqaenir -Op-"the~one-h7n-H-»;i;i 

t^kelJi la^^i'n; ^1?7!r^ '*"* "° **•« P"' °' 'PPl'^^-nts to 
.hth 1!^ which therr was considerable pine or hemlock 

which knd. were roagh and had no ralue for farmin?pur- 

On «; '^K "T ?'i« **''''» *° '^«"»^« th«™ 0' their timW 
On the otter hand the e.ttlera claimed that the timber )i«n^8 
objected to lO^^ applicant, without "rhyme or re^n" iJC 

had reached an acnte stage and th«t some clean-cut «medy "a" 

teruTrou.hTnf"*'' '1:^1 "*** P'^P^' *''•* settlerldd 
take up rough lota upc- which they coulu not make a livin«r to 

despoil them of their timber, or lots that were chtl v IXlht 
Ini 'iw v"*f' '^' C^OTernment thought 'tha^t^: 

un.e88 a lot had «tf per cent, of arable land it should not be 
legated; neither should it be located if it was chiefly valuabk 

H^ •^^ "W'ul opinion of the . araeter of the sci) Td 
timber on ots that were applied for. Accordingly a reluaSn 


^P?^;?^,!!?" appomte^jd^^ 

a^phedfor. In orliT&lSilh^li^^^^h^^^^ 

we« fnZfteT?h»f Jr^'*''^. ""'^ "^'''""y ^^^''^i and 
were instructed that before ranking an inan* inn +k-„ -. x 

aLL '"'P*^*': "" « that they might Ik, represented. 

i,:Z ? T° l?*^*^^"*" "«J "pop the report of the Horaeitetd 
wK^' '^*f'""^",.«' I^nd». *^ore.t. and Mine, deeded 
whether or not the application should be allowed. The .yatera 


When aettlen, did not perform their settlement duties their 
locations were open to cancellation upon applicant, fllinir evi' 
Jnce under oath that nothing or ve^r little had be^„*doni. 
Here ttjcre was a prolific field for dispute and even penurj 
xbe Whitney Government decided that where there w^I'aS 
dispute or doubt the better way would be to have an inXtlon 
.r^\ f^^'n '"T"***' """^ *^*y '«"' "«"^ '«' this work, too, 
upon which It can rely and which shuts out the possibility of 
injustice These Homestead Inspectors are u«k1 for many pur- 
poses, but the enforcing of settlement, the seeing that lands are 
not grabbed for their timber, the prevention of arbitrary obje^ 
tion by lumbermen and the wiping out of so-called settlers who 
do nothing but denpoil lands of the timber, are amongst the 
principal uses to which they are put. 

Fonnerly, under the Liberal Government, when a lot was 
located It passed out of license for anything but the pine timber, 
but If the location was cancelled for the non-performance of 
settlement duties, automatically the lot vent back idto license 
for all timbers and the licensee saw that it was stripped of the 

It 4'^; 5f* ^" *^° P''* '^ «°^ *«' »"^ the principle of 
the Whitney Government with respect to such lots is "out once 
out forever, and now the lot stands with its timber for the use' 
of another settler or for reforestation. 

Generally the policy of the Liberal Government in dealin/? 
with lands of the Crown was to open townships without kiiow- 
ing ansrthmg about their timber, mines and minerals, or suit- 
S! ^^ J ^**l,«™«°*- That was not intelligent administration. 
Ihe Whitney Government has adopted a different policy Now 
before townships are opened, they are inspected by a capable man 
who reports on their timber, the juality of the soil and minerals 

ThliTJa^** wnw dr.wb«,k. to wttlement in tJw CUy B^U 

th!flT i^*'T?'.'^''''*y CommiMion. who is pron,i«i„J 
that the road will be in full operation very shortly '^""""""'^ 

, Th« Whitney Gove rnment has recognised th» t the c««tion of 
law Jn. ustnes. having to dowith the uw of wood, is one of th^e 
principal factors in successfully 8ett]ii,rftit~^^5Stry. It ha« 
therefore endeavored to induce people ^thlapital to go there 
and ™ake large developments. It has attached to their TevSot 
ment conditions, the bringing in of «,ttlers. building^o^tTd 
bearing a «>rtain amount of land in advance to be ^SHor at 
reasonable figures according to arrangement It hiTilao prt 
1, V^! r"'°^ "' employment ilthe works to be ere?S5 
and in the taking out of wood, ete. Two such industr?rare 
now m operation. The New Ontario t'olonuation Companv 
undertook the development of the Townships of Haggart and 

ing settlers; a^S hey w "rf to TS "'^'"^ ''^^^^« ^'"- *"^«'"- 
*own8!nps by the buUdinrn^l large sums m opening up 
age. etc! and they h J TuS' Tn^mt 7f '" ^' "-iH^- ^rain- 
large area of land In fart fLvT ^"'*' ""'^ ^'«"«'l « 

thriyingsettlemen anVw ^ ^*Iv ^''**'^ <*« °«<^l««s of a 
• Thej hive sS i'lif o5^ '° *heir employment 150 men. 

♦100,000 th^P id o;Te land tT".*' " '''^^•*^'''^ ^ ^^e 
hring in a large numbefof 1h u ^ ^*''' ''«* ^««° «We to 
railway facilitiS, b^a^U^t^: rt^r^-"' *'^'"'""^^ <^^ 
trains they expee't a C^Lx ofpe^le «' '^ ™'^""" "^^" 

-etri^'rAtlbT^ulpt'^^^^^^ ''r"^^«"^ °^ *^« <^— 
is emoting .Targe iulp and IS'P'^ ^r^^"-^- '^^'^ C«™P«°v 
to the making 5 ckarinl fnTn ^u"*' ?'y' *"«' "« ««^ject 

Their plant is^dl^tyiS'^ht^'t^^^^^^^ '''' '''''"'■ 

ous scale and will have an inv«tr!L! "f ''^'<'P'°« <"» an enorm- 

tons of pulp and 800 tons of JTper eve^ tlLT ^^Ju "^ ^^'^ 
give employment to from 1,60^1 SMm.n ? //?£ *^'^' '^" 
active development in thPiC TJ! ^f ^,™«°- ^n addition to this 
for inking ourpTlU^^;:A7y'J::J ^Zl^ gi- contacts 
will create a local market for ZZ^ l^Z^T. T'T' 'f 
raise in the way of affrionlht^i JT j ! ine settlers may have to 

materijly arrin1h?'s^^^L*r tTn'^^^^^^^^ 

Another Company has recently undSnVf SlV''""*/^- 
?«lp and paper mill on the MetaLSS Sver tS J ^ ^' * 
an expenditure of «1 750 oon J^fu •„ ,^^ contemplate 
pulp ind pair irdlv 'S' emS ""'"' ^^i"'^"^ ^^ t«°« «^ 
250 men, LTdes^hfr'thTv '7 '^"^^ "'i **^' P'""^* «* >«*«* 
wood *n, Jw *v. ^. ^" ^'^« markets for the settlers' 

wood and what they may raise on their lands 

Tenders are now beingcall^^. for another ^ood indn«frv 
employing about 100 hands per^dii^^ "^if?!-!^' 


New Ontario " "'^^'^^^^^t for the developmeni of 

the country wa^ be hS Tel n' S^k'^T* '^''"«^* ^^^ ^^ere 
ouffht to share n the val n. '^ ^y railways, etc., the public 

i« laid out, mltd^Z^"^"'^'''^ ?" ^*>«" * ^*" «"^ 
became the propTt ot L r ' ""^^[/''"rth lot in it shall 
of enabling Sewhl t T""- J^'' ^«« ''««° the means 
reasonable pricTto fl « T\ ** °''**'° ^°*^ '" t«^° «'tes at 

hei.. for ti'p:^o,:i>r^>:iir"*^ ^'^^^^ ^- «'^ ^^-^ 

^oods kid Forests. 

fX ItX^alT^b" ""^^r^*^ '*^ P«^'^-^ «^ holding 
other good reLr 00^4"^^^^^ l"-- «- - son,? 

*s the former GovernmerC 't ! , t^ ""J'""^' "^'^ «"«!» 
of timber damagid bv Sl nr' ^'!''' ^^^^ ^° *« ^^^^^ «»« 

beet"jSrr-;r:rr« sales hav^ beef heTbl^^. have 
timber is c,? and ft^rhi^ thousand feet, board measure, as the 

fK<. n "^ousand feet board measure, dues. Bv this fivrf<.,« 

system is thtt the OOTerament ToISlr .1. i^ . f^ °' ""' 
HerH. and ^U . („„ .„d f.'.V^'Ztlr ""' "°""' "" "" 

timber varies accorfiL t! !,°T' 7 ! '^"fP "l"* of 
t...,.e and .lifflX *dri:i';t"i l''"!''"""?.^ "'- 

measure in addition to «2 d!!!. t P*f t''«'«'an<l 'eet board 

.». ™».. •.-o°p^^K"ol.d^rJ.Ter„■1s- 

•n ald.t.on to $2 dues A small limit on the Temiskaming an.l 
Northern Ontario Railway brought $14.40 per thousand feet 
board measure and $2 dues, and on McGregor in Lake 
Huron the Department obtained $15.50 per thousand feet board 
measure in addition to $2 dues. 

Pirip Md Pai>er MOli. 

The Whitney Government early abandoned the Lih «.ral Gov- 
ernment>8 policy of giving away large areas for nothi ng, and 
ejtabl^ed the sj'stem ofputting upjo pubHc competition pulp 
areas^but while doing this they did not lessen or rehirthTcon- 
ditions of development required. They were equal if not 
superior to those required when the territory was given away. 
Ihe wisdom of the Government's course has been seen. Laree 
sums of money have 'been paid in for the right to obtain terri- 
tory, pulp and paper mills have been erected, and large de- 
velopments have taken place. The Spanish R iver plant ha« 
been extended, the Sturgeon Falls mills, which wer e shut down 
hgve_b een b^ugnt to life, and indust rj^instead^of^ii;:;. 
prevail there. Large pulp mills have been erected at Fort 
Frances, at Dryden and at Abitibi. New plants are contem- 
plated or unde r way at Metagami and K^WiT There are grea t 
possibilities in the pulp resources of this Province, and the 

the vZ ^,T™'"* ^^''' *^** ^^' P««P'« ^J'^"'^ «hare in 
to J!w>, r P«!«!^'»*»««- « P»lP «nd paper people desire 
to avail themselves of the privilege of making moneVout of the 
property of the people of Ontario, then they should be invit^ 
to pay for the privilege rather than be given a present of it 

Large quantities of railway ties are required for the con- 
struction and repair of railways. For example, over six million 
hes were taken off Crown Lands last year' Pormerlv people 
were given permits to cut wherever they liked. The WhSey 

on rS ^*\.'=^^,«!'i t^'**' --l e-'^Pt in remote localitie's 
on the Transcontinental no permits are issued. The limits are 

c7Jr^\ "' *7."^^'' competition at a bid per tie in addition to 
crown dues of 5c. each. 


F«rMt S«MrTM. 


I"'"""*'"' • • • fi.OOOmile*. 

}f'^}^^m 4,800 " 

i;^'"P«" 7,300 '• 

Ka**terri ^^^ « 

Sibley ' ^^ „ 


;J'«°"*1"'" 2.741 ,„ile«. 

2"*5^° 1,530 " 

ivideau » 

There is pr(Aabl.v nine billion feet of pine on these reserves 
^ludmg .n reserves the Quetico Park, ^hich has just Xntly 
been changed from a reserve into a park in order to protect the 
ganje. The p,ne timber on these reserves is worth on an atrage 
of .$8 per thousand, which represents an asset of sav sevenfv 
m.lhons of dollars. By putting this vast quant tv^ TmE^V 

ntll Tr H? '"T '' '"'™''*^*'° ^y fi'' '« almost el mi^: 
ated, as no settlement or squatting is allowed in these reserves 
and great precautions are taken by fireranging to pTerent T 
starting or spread of forest fires. ' 

In taking stock of the value of the timber on these reserves it 

that there are enormous quantities of spruce upon some of these 
reserves which will easily represent Lther'^ve million o? 

Algonquin Park-nith its large area was all under timber 

oflJIili'" '' r'*°'J Government came into power-par 
of ,t being under license for all varieties of timber and part for 
he pine timber only. The Government has endeavored i qu e 
the titles of he licensees in the Park where it could do so a 
rea.sonable values, and it has brought back into the Crown free 


from license nearly 600 miles, which will now be carefulh pro- 
tected for the growing of timber. 

The GoTernment spent, for the protection of these reserves by 
fireran^rs last year $88,000, and no fires of any moment 
occurred oti any of them. One thousand eight hundred miles of 
valuable timber territory was added during the year to the Miss- 
issaga Forest Reserve. 

Algonquin Park, in which the game is carefully protected, is 
beginning to produce a considerable revenue from the furs taken 
there by the Government rangers. During the last three vears 
upwards of $15,000 has been realized from sales of furs' and 
this form of revenue wUl constantly increase. 

There was great danger to the forest from fires during railwav 
construction. The Whitney Government passed legislation 
^T!!^"? *?* ^'^^"^ companies to put on firerangers when 
ordered to do so. If they did not, the Government put them on 
and the railways had to pay all the expense. The Government 
alsq placed firerangers along the construction of the railwav"— 
two. for every ten miles. The railways had to pay one-half the 
cost and the Government paid the other half. By this system 
of railway fireranging fires have been prevented and a spirit of 
care and responsibility has be€n inculcated in railway eniplovees 
and contractors which has been of great service. 

Tfc* OrMt Work. 

The Province has been for years deriving a great re\emic 
from the timber and lands in its newer parts. The people who 
live m that region claimed that they should get more assist- 
ance from the Government ii opening up the country The 
whole question was taken up by the Government. The extent 
of settlement, condition as to roads, etc., were enquired into bv 
the Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines, and the Government 
came to the conclusion that the time had arrived for a great 
forward movement in the development of New Ontario. 

Sir James Whitney is energetic, far-seeing and courageous and 
when he makes up his mind that a thing ought to be done it is 
done ! He and his Government have the interests of the back 
country at heart in a larger degree than anv Government that 
has ever ruled this Province. 



Sir James Whitney came down to the House an.l asked for 
hve million dollars to assist in opening up and developing I^ew 
Ontario and the House gave him authority to borrow the money 
The method of development was to be— the construction of works 
of various kinds, the building of roads and bridges, water powers 
developed, settlement and colonization promoted, transporta- 
tion to be improved, and agriculture stimulated and assisted. 

This was a great programme with splendid opportunities for 
the exercise of patronage. Following a precedent set by the 
Doniimon Government of Sir Wilfrid Laurier a commission 
might have been appointed consisting of gentlemen who knew 
nothing about the practical carrying out of such a work. That 
IS not Sir James' way. What wa.s done was to pick a capable 
officer from the service of the Department of Lands, Forests and 
Mines, who was a surveyor and a practical and energetic man. 
He was given an absolutely free hand in the selection of his .staff, 
foremen and men, and was instructed to act alwavs upon his own 
responsibility and judgment. All the Department required was 
that he should get the work done rapidly, 'efficientlv and economi- 

Mr. Whitson, O.L.S., the officer selected, has proven a most 
capable man and no one has had a word of criticism of what he 
has done. Of course the first matter to be taken up in a develop- 
ment of this kind is the building of roads, and that work was 
immediately undertaken and has been diligently prosecuted. 
The work has been carried on practically from the eastern 
boundary of the Province to the western. 

In the first year of the work— 1912— 233 miles of road were 
cut out, 210 miles being entirely new road and the balance— 
23 miles— roads that had been partly cut out and partly im- 
proved previously. Of this mileage 50 miles was completed and 
graded. The work for the season cost $208,000. 

In 1913 the work was attacked more vigorously, with the 
result that 764 miles of road were constructed or partly con- 
structed, and of the total mileage 500 miles were graded — part 
of the graded roads being macadamized or re-suifaced, and 2t(> 
miles of road were cut out of the virgin forest. 

The roads consisted of main trunk lines with lateral branches, 
the policy being to make the trunk road first-class and perman- 
ent. The lateral roads were to let settlers out to the main roais. 

During the present year all the roads under construction are 


expected to be finished and a few trunk lines put under con- 
struction. The benefit of this plan of road-making has been 
felt all over the back country, not only by giving increased 
facilities for travel and enabling the settlers to get out to market, 
etc., but by the employment given and the expenditure incident 

The only criticism of the method of the work by the Oppo- 
sition is that the specific amounts to be expended ou each road 
or work are not submitted to the House and voted upon. One 
who did not know what is done would think the Government 
was trying to hide something, whereas they are proud of the 
work and ready to justify every cent that has been spent. 

Now, what are the facts? The first year nothing could be 
done until the officer who was put in charge of the work had 
gone over the ground. He could not tell what roads^ should be 
first constructed without inspection. He had to be given a free 
hand to construct where he thought was necessary. If money 
had to be voted for each particular work then a whole year must 
have been lost in order to get the vsstjmates before the House. 
So he was told to go ahead and when he had made up his mind 
where a road should be built to go on >tnd build it — and this 
he did. 

In the Session of 1913 his report for 1912 came down to the 
House. It set out fuMy what was done and what was spent, 
and nlso gave — what do you supp ose? — a statement showing the 
roads it was proposed t o open up in each district during 1913, 
where they were situated, an d the amount intended to be ex- 
pen ded. The report gave the estimated e xpenditure for 1913 
-^s $1,000,000. This was laid on the table of the House. 

When the report came down to the House in 1914 showing 
what had been done in 1913 the expenditure was shown to have 
l)een $1,081,178.28. Adding to this the exp -nditure of 1912— 
$208,440.31 — there had been a total expenditure to date out of 
the five million dollars appropriated of $1,289,618.69. This 
report also gave an estimate of what was proposed to be spent 
in 1914, amounting to $950,000, which was laid on the table. 
At the end of this year $2,239,618.59 will have been spent on 
roads, leaving over two million dollars of the five million appro- 
priated still available for various developments contemplated by 
the Act. 




The Qovernment . is to be congnitulatcd on the freat 
work they undertook in the interests . of New Ontario— 
the usefuiness, enera:>-, economy and lionesty with which 
it has been conducted. No Qovernment of Ontario has 
ever done as much for the back country as the Whitney 
Qovernment. N o better "suspicion sm eiiers" ever^xjsted 
than the present Opposition, but they have found nothitiK 
reflecting in the slightest 'degree on the management or 
expenditure of this extensive undertaking. 


Comparison- Between 1904. the Last Year of the Ross 


the Present Government. 

Letters received at the Department in 19fi4 H.070 
lictters received at the Department in 1913 56,452 
Out going mail — letters, circulars and re- 

jiorts despatched in 1904 ,52,110 

Out going mail — letters, circulars and re- 
ports despatched in 1913 65,280 

Showing an increase in the volume of correspondence of 26,652. 




Land Branch. 

Persons located in 1904 1,098 

Persons located in 191.1 1,575 

Acres located in 1904 152.699 

Acres located in 1913 221.255 

Purchasers of free grant lands in 1904. . . . 326 

Purchasers of free grant lands in 1913. . . . 418 

Acres purchased in 1904 10,212 

Acres purchased in 1913 18,017 

Lots cancelled in 1904 710 

Lots cancelled in 1913 1,020 

Patents issued in 1904 1,200 

Patents issued in 1913 .3,535 


Woods and Forests. 

The figures for the Woods and Forests Branch are illuminat- 
ing as to where the money came from to flnanoa the Province 
in the late ^'ears of the Ross Govemmeni. 

The revenue from woods and foresta in 

1004 was $8,6S0,878 

The revenue from woods and forests in 

1913 was 8,098,680 

but the Ross Government got $1,664,258 from bonuses, whereas 
the present Government only got $614,827, so that the Rosp 
Government got $1,050,031 more in lionuses, owing to their big 
timber sale in 1903, than the Whitney Government did. 

The Boss Government sold 102,866 acres for $79,634 

The present Government sold 260,873 acres for 262,164 


The AMiitney Government has in'trodueed a definite system of 
Reforestation to assist in preventing the rapid destruction of 
the woodlands of the older parts of Ontario. 

With a view to the intelligent conservation of timber in the 
reserves and reforeciation, and giving expert advice in localities 
where it is required, there has been added to the staif of the 
Department of Lands, Forests and Mines a forester who is a 
graduate of Yale School of Forestry and also of the Agricultural 
College at Guelph. His services are available in any locality 
where advir is required as to tree planting, etc. 

An Experimental Forest Station was started in Norfolk 
County in 1909. This Station contains 1,500 acres of land suit- 
able for demonstrations in forest planting. At this Station 
experimental plantings of over 300,000 young forest trees have 
been made, composed largely of White Pine, Red Pine, Scotch 
Pine, Jack Pine, Black Locust, Red Oak, Chestnut and White 

A Forest Nursery is maintained at the Norfolk Statiou to 
supply planting material for demonstrations and expenmental 
plantings in other parts of the Province. This Nursery now con- 
tains over 1,000,000 seedlings. From these nurseries nearly two 
million plants have been sent out for forest plantings, through- 


out older Ontario. Demonstration plantings have been carried 
ont in near'- every (ounty in older Ontario. During the spring 
of 1914, 400,000 plants were sent out free, from the Government 
Nursery, to provide landowners desiring to experiment in re- 
foresting waste land. These forest plantations ha-e been made 
upon various types of land, unsuited for agricultUK\ 

From the Governnient nurseries collections of forest seedlings 
are sent out free to public schools maintaining school gardens, in 
order that the children may become familiar with the growing 
of young forest trees. Publications are issued and lectures given 
to emphasize the value of forest preservation. 

Legislation has been granted to enable municipalities to 
acquire and hold land for forestry purposes and to exempt wood- 
lands of private landowners from taxation. 

iMpreTlif tke M IbIb^ Laws. 

When the Whitney Government assumed the reins of office 
in 1905 th»7 found the mining industry had outgrown the min- 
ing laws, which were no longer suitable. When a prospector 
made a discovery on Crown lands he had to send bis application 
to the Department at Toronto, and had io contend with all the 
difficulties incidental to carrying on business at so long a range. 

Further, the rich discoveries of silver at Oohalt had .hown the 
disadvantages of the old system under which the Department 
decided all disputes; for applicants, witnesses and lawyers in 
contested cases had to come to Toronto at great trouble an<l 
expense. It was clearly necessary to adopt method--^ better 
adapted for the expeditious despatch of business. To this end, 
the new Government overhauled the Mining Act and introduce*! 
the following improvements: — 

t. The Province was divided into Mining Divisions and a 
Mining Recorder appointed for each, whose duty should be to 
receive and record applications for mining lands, thus insuring 
immediate recognition of a mining claim without reference to 

?. For the settlement of all disputes a Mining Commissioner 
was appointed, to whom — and not to the Department — appeals 
were authorized from the Mining Recorders. If a litigant were 


diMatiafied with the CommiMioner'H award, he had the right to 
appeal to a Divisional Court, and then to the Court of Appeal. 

The change has been of immense benefit to the mining com- 
munity : contested cases are quickly decided, and all question of 
political influence being used in favor of one or other of the 
disputants i^* entirely eliminated. In pradtic* , apjieals from the 
Commissioner^ de( ii*ion« to the courts of law art- v«'rv few. 

.3. Under the old Act a patent or lease was granted subject 
to the expenditure of a specified sum of money ii' mining work, 
the grant being forfeitable on failure to expend the money. The 
title was, therefore, merely a " qualified " one until the work 
was done and proof filed with the Department. 

The new law reverses the process. It requires 840 days* work 
to be done on each claim of 40 acres before the patent can issue. 
Once iMued. the title is absolute and is secured against for- 

4. The old Act did not require a discoverer of mineral to put 
up a notice or post indicating his discovery oi making any claim 
to the land. Loss of time and money was frsquently the conse- 
quence, for prospectors would often apply for a parcel of land 
only to find that it had already been taken up. 

The Act was amended by obliging the prospector to put up a 
discovery post on the outcrop of mineral, place stakes at the 
four comers of his claim, and blaz" a line between the posts, 
thus giving notice to ail and sundr^ h&t he had made a find and 
claimed the ground. 

Claims were reduced from t r:iaximum area of 320 acres to 10 
acres, or in case:: of unusually rich ground (special mining 
divisions), to 20 acres. The price of land was made uniform 
($2.50 per acre in unsurveyed and $.1.00 per acre in surveyed 
territory), and many other changes were made, all in the direc- 
tion of de-centralizing the administration of mining lands and 
facilitating the transaction of business. 

S«fet7 Refnlatloas. 

On the operating side of the industry, more and better in- 
spection of mines was provided for. The regulations for safe- 
guarding and protecting the health and lives of mining em- 
ployees were strengthened and made more drastic, and ever)-- 



thing ilone that Ifgistatiou lould devue for the aMiidaiue <if 
acridcnti. The latest meaaure for amaliontiog labor ooiHli> 
tiona was an amendment paaaed in 1913. bv wliich the eight* 
hour day waa made o bligatory for underj.Ttiund worknien after 
the ist of"Jni«i»ry, T»14. 

Werk ef Bireai ef HtoM. 

Then, too, the Bureau of Minefl was recast, more geologists, 
engineers, etc., were appointed in order that all poMible infor- 
mation might be obtained as to the geology and mineralogy of 
the Province, for the benefit of prospectors, capitalists and 
othoi** intereated. The labors of the Bureau have been of great 
and direct benefit to the mining industry, and the maps and 
reports which have been issued, and the investigations and re- 
searches which have been made, have proven of much practical 
worth. Testimony to thiH effect has been borne by many persons 
rompeteut to judge, both i.iside and outside of the Province. 

The niokel fields of Sudbury, the silver deposits of Cobalt, 
South Lorrain and Gowganda, the gold fields of Porcupine, 
Tjarder Lftke and Kirkland Lake, the iron regions of Michipi- 
<oten, the corundum deposits of Eastern Ontario, and many 
other mineral districts have been examined, reporte<l on and 
mapped by the Bureau of Mines, to thr advantage not only of 
prospectors, but of everyone interested in the mining industry. 
Within the last few weeks, chromiim, platinum, and even dia- 
monds have been detected through the skill of the Provincial 
Geologist. Even though the diamonds are microscopic in size, 
their presence and that of the other metals just mentioned is 
indicative of the great possibilities of Northern Ontario in the 
way of mineral resources. 

The latest action for the stimulation of discovery wae the 
offering by the Legislature of a reward of $25,000 for the find- 
ing of radium in comm ercial quantity in Ontario, f'nref" of 
cancer wrought by this ■'ubstance have l)een s-o remarknble that 
the Government deemed it their duty to endeavor to bring to 
light any supply of it which may exist in Ontario, so that the 
very scanty stock which the world has so far yielded — not per- 
haps exceeding one ounce in weight — might be supplpiix-iited, 


•nd the bmteflu of radium pl«c«d within the ntch of Ontario 
■ufTerera from thii terrible diaeaae. 

Ill carrying on the alTair» of the Proviiuv the (Jovernment 
naturally requires revenue. It ia contended that Providence in 
placing rich depositA of mineral in the ground Hoe* . not only 
for the good of private individual*, but also for : of the 
people at large, and that in conaequence, a reattonabi^ «hare nf 
the money realised from working them should go into the publii' 

In acting upon this principle, the Whitney Government has 
proceeded upon es recognized a« not only just, but fair and 
reaaonable. By lining Tax Act a mining company or firm 

realising more than >< 0,000 per annum of net profit, pays a 
tas of three per cent, on the exceai^. Thus a company whose 
profita, after providing for all outlays and expenses, amounted 
in any one year to $100,000, would pay into the GoTerrment's 
handa to aaaiat in defraying the public expenditures, the sum of 
$3,000. If the company realized no profits, or less than $10,000. 
't would pay nothing. The c ntriA)utions by the mines to the 
Provincial Treasury are based solely upon their net gain. \o 
fairer principle could have been adopted, and no taxing act has 
ever worked more smoothly. To their credit be it said, the min- 
ing companies have shown every desire to be reasonable. 

In order that the lo(=*litie8 in which the mines are situated 
may have funds for impr ving their r' ads, sewerage and water 
systems, bui'dinjr school. Ac, the ]aw provides they shall 
receive onf-third of all tlie revenue from mining taxation, an 
exception t>eing made of the town of Cobalt, who.4e rocky site 
and the consequent costlinc^ of public improvements made out 
a case for one-l)alf the tax. The splendid roads of Coleman 
township and the wonders that have been wrought in the atony 
hillsides of Cobalt town8it( bear unmistakable evidence of the 
benerfits tive 'Mining Tax Act has conferred upon local munici- 

The same law imposes a tax of two cents per acre on mining 
lands in unorganized territory, this displacing the old Algoma 
Land Tax of one cent per acre; also a tax on natural gas of two 
cents per thousand cubic feet, a rebate being granted of 90 per 


mnt. of the Ux when tht* g»» i* UMd in Canada. Thi^ gd* tax 
haa bad two reaulta: — 

(1) To bring to an end the export of natural gu to the 
Unitad 8Utea. 

(t) To almost entirely stop the wa»te of ga«, which waa rom- 
iHuu before tlie Act wa» paMed. 

BRaiMflt.ltte Adatalatratlea. 

In aildition to the revenues provided by the Miiiiiij? Tax Act, 
the Whitney Government have obtained a further «hare for thi- 
public of the great wealth of Ontario's mineral fleUU. particu- 
larly those of the Cobalt oilver camp, by digponing nf unlocated 
parcels, chiefly lands under water, to the highest bidder. The 
bed of Cofcalt Lake was sold for $1,086,000, and Kerr Lake for 
•178..500, and ten per cent, royalty on the output. There were 
also some rich properties obtained by methods which were called 
in queation. and the tiilcs of which the Oovfriunent fit it their 
duty to endeavor to set aside through the courts. These action.^ 
were cnmpromrsed, and the parties allowed to remain in posses- 
sion .11 undertaking to pay specified royalties on the proc{>eds 
of the mines. 

Under the .^bove headings the Government has received dur- 
ing the years 1907-1913 in mining royalties, $1,747,364; from 
the Mining Tax Act, $972,862, and from special sales of mining 
land. $1,263,500, or in all, $ Not one cent from such 
Murces ever came into the Ross Government's coffers. Thi* 
large sum was derived, as it may be said, entirely from the 
lx>unty of Nature, and its collection has in no way harassed the 
mining industry or impeded its progress, as is shown by the 
remarkable increase in the annual production of minerals during 
the last few years. For instance, in 1904. the last year of the 
old Government, the total production had a value of $11, .'572.647, 
wh-le in 1913 it had risen to $.'}.1.20«.311. 


A gtriklBs CoBtnit 

The following figures show the total receipts from mining 
sources during the nine years of the Whitney Government:— 

1»05 $fe6,073 

1906 250,180 

1907 1.730.078 

1908 537,630 

1909 977,157 

1910 940,140 

1911 798,980 

1918 633,778 

1913 681,484 

'I'otal $6,554,880 

An average of $788,853 

The contrast between the above t»ble and the following, which 
is for the last nine years of the old Government, is Bufficiently 
remarkable : — 

1896 $66,848 

1897 839.867 

1898 86.666 

1899 172.170 

1900 110,448 

1901 87.057 

1908 87,998 

1903 66.046 

1904 46,084 

'•'otal $963,178 

An average of $107,019 

EBConrafemrat of B^bIb^. 

The extent to which the raw materials of any industry are 
worked up into the finished article in the country of origin is a 
measure of the progress made by that industry. The silver from 
the Cobalt mines is now largely marketed as merchantable bars. 


produced at Coibalt and in the refineries situated elsewhere in 
Ontario. The nickel and topper of Sudbury are not yet, it is 
true, produced in a refined condition in the Province, yet the 
Bessemer mattes now exported for refinement contain 80 per 
cent, of metals as compared with less than .10 per cent, of metals 
in the low grade mattes which the furnaces formerly produced. 
To accelerate the tendency towards the home refining of nickel 
and other metals, the ^Vhitney Government introduced and had 
the Legislature pass The Metal Refining Bounty Act, granting 
a bounty of six cents per pound on nickel or cobalt refined in 
Ontario, or on the metallic contents of refined nickel and cobalt 
oxide. A bounty is also offered of one and one-half cents per pound 
on refined copper, and one-half cent per pound on arsenic refined 
from mispickcl ore. The encouragement thus offered has enabled 
refiners of cobalt oxide from the silver-cobalt ores of Ontario to 
dominate the world's markets for this material. Formerly the 
chief source of supply was Xew Caledonia, a French island 
in the South Pa( ific ocean ; but tlie Xew Caledonia cobalt mines 
have given way to thoie of Ontario. 

Water Powers. 

The water powers of northern Ontario have begun to play an 
important part in the development of the country, and are des- 
tined to play a still more important part. The mining industry 
in particular is largely benefitted by the cheap power derivable 
from water falls. Wood is first used for fuel ; this gives way to 
coal, and finally coal to water power, at one-Kalf or one-third the 
cost. These powers can no longer be purchased outright, but 
may be leased from the Crown on conditions requiring immediate 
development, and on payment of a moderate rental. Thus 
the Government obtains a fair revenue, and at the same time 
presents the mining industry with power not hampered with a 
heavy initial charge such as would be imposed on purchase 
from private individuals. Practically all of the mining camps 
of northern Ontario are now operated by electric power gener- 
ated from near-by falls. Other industries springing into ex- 
istence are also favored by this cheap power, particularly flour- 
ing mills, pulp and paper plants, ami wood-working establish- 
ments, for which latter industries the northern parts of the 
Province are particularly adapted. 


Money well spent. 

compabison of expenditcbes in northern ontario, on 



1901-19(>4... $36,533 82 

1910-1913 159,714 01 

Iiicrease $123,180 19 


1901-1904 $881,919 M 

1910-1913 79o,8ir J5 

^^cre&se $508,893 92 

Special Grants for Technical Education. 

1901-1904 nothing 

1910-1913 $40.894 00 

Colonization Roads. 

1901-1904 ( 567,547 63 

1910-1913 1,548,156 68 

Iiicrease $990,609 OS 

Special Road Work Under Northern Development Branch. 

1901-1904 nothing 

1910-1913 $1,272,101 86 

Puhlie Works. 

1901-1904 $215,922 21 

1910-1913 639,930 69 

'^^CTe&se $424,008 48